From mechanical hard disk to solid state disk, how

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From mechanical hard disk to solid-state disk: how fast has your computer been in ten years?

with the continuous upgrading and iteration of flash memory technology, the yield of flash memory chips has been greatly improved, coupled with the continuous increase of the original factory capacity, the price of solid-state disk is now very low compared with a few years ago, and the price of mainstream solid-state disk is basically The range of 5 yuan and 1GB, with its fast performance and relatively suitable price, has now become a necessary installation for DIY players, game enthusiasts, ordinary savers and other PC demand groups. A few years ago, the mechanical hard disk, which was in the ascendant, began to decline

01 Lianpo was old ten years ago.

all old computer players know that before 2010, mechanical hard disk used to occupy the hard disk market with the two advantages of "high capacity price ratio and high cost performance". However, faced with the growing trend of solid-state disk, it is trapped in the influence of two factors: disk speed and single disk capacity, and there has been no breakthrough technological progress, so it gives solid-state disk the opportunity to quickly occupy the market

comparison between HDD and SSD shipments

in addition to technical reasons, the cost performance of mechanical hard disks is gradually destroyed by themselves. According to the data, from 2010 to 2011, taking the 500GB mechanical hard disk as an example, the price has exceeded 500 yuan, and the capacity price ratio has exceeded 1gb/1 yuan. It can be seen that the capacity price ratio of mechanical hard disk is also losing its advantage, so the large mechanical hard disk began to decline, and the scenery is no longer good

how fast is your computer in the past ten years?

before the five years of contraction, when talking about solid-state drives, we all had two feelings: first, the speed is fast, and second, the price is high. By about 2015, we will still install mechanical hard disks. The traditional mechanical hard disk HDD uses a high-speed rotating disk to store data and read and write through the magnetic head. This process is similar to the previous VCD playing discs. In this process, there is a delay and it cannot burst out multi-directional read and write data at the same time, so its speed will be very slow

take a practical example. After your system has been used for a long time, the boot time of the mechanical hard disk is basically more than 1 minute, and in some extreme cases, it may be opened for 3 minutes. Moreover, the hard disk is still reading loudly after entering, and it can only be used after a period of time. If your computer uses a solid-state drive, it can be started in 10 seconds, and it can be used immediately without waiting time

next, through the comparison of a set of test data, we can get a glimpse of the performance differences between computer hard disks in the next ten years

comparison between a mechanical hard disk and Samsung 970evo plus

friends who are familiar with hard disk products should not be unfamiliar with these data. This is a group of typical comparison charts of hard disk performance tests

the first line of data represents continuous reading and writing, involving a single large file, such as a movie. In our daily use, it is generally game installation, movie copy, compressed package copy, etc. the gap between the two is nearly 20 times. Do you have any experience? The second behavior is 4K random reading and writing. For example, our operating system and various software are composed of thousands of several MB or even several KB. After reading one, the system needs to quickly find the next file and then read the next one. The speed of finding files in solid state is very fast, while machines need to spend a lot of time to find files. The speed of solid-state random reading and writing is almost 100 times that of machines, So it is reasonable to use the computer with mechanical hard disk

the third behavior is 4K deep queue, which is generally more games and professional software, and the gap between the two is more than 1000 times. The fourth line is the access time. The mechanical access time reaches 15 milliseconds, while the solid-state access time is only a few tenths of a millisecond

through comparison, we can see the gap between mechanical hard disk and solid-state disk. It is not difficult to see that by 2020, mechanical hard disk has been very slow. With the accelerated popularization of the era of content creators, ordinary consumers' demand for memory bandwidth is bound to further increase, while the speed of 100mb/s+ of mechanical hard disk is completely inadequate

take personal experience as an example, there is an office computer around me, which has been in service for about 89 years, and it is very stuck. The CPU is e5800, equipped with a mechanical hard disk. Later, I replaced a solid-state drive and rebuilt the system. Now I have no problem making forms normally, and the speed is not too slow

03 has the solid state disk industry been going backwards for ten years

in addition to the revolutionary progress from mechanical hard disk to solid-state disk, with the rapid development of solid-state disk, there is a rumor of "industry regression" in the market. Some users and practitioners believe that from SLC to MLC, then MLC to TLC, and even now QLC and PLC, the rewritable life of flash memory particles has been significantly shortened. Isn't this an industry regression

32gb/RMB 5000

in fact, in the author's opinion, whether the industry has regressed cannot be simply evaluated from one dimension, but should be judged from the aspects of technical experience and price, in which market choice may be the decisive factor

the following solid-state drive is an SLC product launched by Samsung brand storage in 2006, with a capacity of 32g, a read-write speed of 49m/s and 29m/s. Under the web server, the maximum IOPs is less than 2200k. The book data could not be compared with the current TLC SSD, but it was already very strong at that time. Its price is roughly $25/gb, that is, 150~175 yuan per GB. What do you think of the price

500gb/RMB 639 yuan (the commodity price is the price on the release date)

the time is set to the 10th decade. The Samsung 860evo can be said to be a very popular TLC solid state drive in recent years. The current price of 500GB capacity is 639 yuan. The continuous read-write performance is 500mb/s+, the performance is almost ten times higher than that of the first generation SLC SSD, and the unit price has also been significantly reduced. Can you still say that the SSD industry is going backwards

970evo plus

in fact, with the rapid development of 3D NAND technology, the original flash memory manufacturers led by Samsung have realized the transfer from 2D plane to 3D NAND, and the storage capacity per unit area is becoming larger and larger

Samsung began to mass produce the first generation of 3D v-nand and the first generation of v-nand products in 2013, and began to mass produce the fifth generation of v-nand 3D stacked flash memory and 9x layer stacking design in 2018; It has been leading the continuous innovation in flash memory capacity and performance in the storage industry

so we can see that in recent years, many manufacturers have developed and used 9x layer 3D NAND products to make the moisture absorption rate reach 8% - 12%; As for Samsung, it continues to promote the development of 100 + layer 3D NAND. According to the current development trend, we may see solid-state products of 100 + layer 3D NAND as early as the beginning of next year

with the acceleration of technological evolution and innovation, the popularity of storage media has increased, and the manufacturing cost of solid-state disk has also been reduced on a large scale. More and more people buy SSD, which once again promotes manufacturers to carry out technological innovation and evolution

this is actually a virtuous cycle of the development of the solid state disk industry, or the hard disk industry

therefore, we can find that with the continuous increase of 3D NAND stack height, the unit storage density of NAND flash reaches 1TB, and the price of unit storage is actually declining. SSD products have become the mainstream products in the industry under the condition of continuous decline in price and continuous improvement in performance

some people may ask that behind the increase of unit capacity and the reduction of price, the durability of storage particles is actually sacrificed. How do you explain this

in fact, historical experience tells us that existence is reasonable, or more exaggerated, existence is leading. In other words, the current mainstream particles must have experienced the best choice under the comprehensive consideration of market, technology, industry and other dimensions and levels. Whether it is s at the beginning of the birth of solid-state disk that makes it a substitute LC in early childhood education and teaching, MLC from behind, or tlc/qlc, which is becoming the mainstream now, these are actually historical choices, or the best choice in the current technological environment

is a comprehensive choice considering consumption capacity, technical level and particle's own physique. This choice can often only be matched and tried by top manufacturers in the industry. For example, storage giant Samsung has launched QLC series products since last year, which is a signal of the historical development of solid-state drives and will be one of the best solutions for a long time in the future

back to the original question, "is the SSD industry retreating?", In fact, the market has given the answer

04 where will the mechanical hard disk go in ten years

δ The positive stress unit is MPa

at present, 5g, cloud computing, IOT and other cutting-edge technologies relying on big data have begun to land, and the data storage industry has really ushered in the era of the big bang, so the development trend of the storage industry has returned to the rising direction. The magnitude of data storage will also achieve a "great leap forward" growth. According to the forecast, the magnitude of data storage will jump from the current 32zb to more than 100zb in 2023, and the capacity demand will usher in a substantial growth

according to the current development technology of mechanical hard disk, the server SAS hard disk has the highest performance at 15000 rpm; The 2.5-inch mechanical hard disk can achieve the maximum speed of 10000 rpm; Sata3.5-inch hard disk has a maximum speed of 7200 rpm, which is also the most mainstream mechanical hard disk at present

as we all know, mechanical hard disk has become the preferred storage medium in most data centers at present because of its low cost and relatively stable storage performance. However, with the continuous innovation of 3D flash memory technology, the cost of flash memory also began to decrease with the technological iteration and large-scale application. Therefore, QLC flash memory particles, which are based on the inherent advantages of flash memory storage, such as small space, high performance, strong adaptability, and can be applied to various storage environments, will become the mainstream of data centers in the future

from the 96 layer 3D NAND to the 100 + layer, in the foreseeable future, solid state disk will become the first choice of data centers instead of mechanical hard disk, or it will become a reality. However, according to the development law of the industry, it is expected that the mechanical hard disk will still exist within a decade, but it will no longer be the mainstream first choice whether on the consumer side or the enterprise side

05 written at the end

from the history of hard disk development, it is an inevitable trend for hard disk to become smaller and larger. However, due to the different application fields of HDD and SSD, it is still unlikely that SSD will completely replace HDD in the future. However, in the long run, due to the cost reduction and technological innovation, such as QLC flash memory technology and 3D TLC technology, the cost of SSD will decline. In the visible future, the development direction that SSD will eventually replace HDD to occupy the dominant position is obvious

an industry professional once said that the cost difference between SSD and HDD per GB reached more than ten digits, and he would never see the intersection of SSD and HDD per GB. But according to the current development situation, this conclusion will be proved wrong by reality, so is your computer still using mechanical hard disk

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