From rich businessmen to negative businessmen, the

2022-08-23
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From "rich merchants" to "negative merchants", the "financing difficulty" of small and medium-sized enterprises plays a key role

as the blood of enterprise development, capital is the most direct, realistic and fatal problem faced by small and medium-sized enterprises on the road of development. "From 20million assets to 20million yuan debt" is a possible problem for the development of every enterprise, but the reason for this problem, It doesn't have to be attributed to the enterprise's product market and management philosophy. A large part of the reason may be "financing"

in 2012, an Oriental company (a pseudonym) in Chongqing spent all its money of more than 20 million yuan to build a factory in Nadi, a tea garden, to produce plastic shells for a well-known local household appliance brand company

supporting large brands requires high production capacity and scale. In order to get the order, Dongfang company had to further expand the plant and purchase equipment on the basis of having the production capacity, and invested all its own funds. What about the company's turnover shortage? They found the bank

the loan conditions of the bank are not loose: the total amount of working capital loans is more than 13 million yuan, but Oriental company can only get more than 6 million yuan, and the remaining more than 6 million yuan must be placed in the bank for regular repayment of the principal and interest of another fixed asset loan of 80 million yuan

at the beginning of issuing the loan, a sum of interest paid in advance was cut off. This practice, commonly known as "cutting interest", made Oriental company fall into the dilemma of capital shortage from the beginning. "As the working capital is not in place in full, we are short of money as soon as we start construction, and we even often default on utilities and employee wages, and taxes and social security cannot be paid regularly." The person in charge of Oriental company said frankly

I want to reach out to the bank again, but I really can't find a mortgage. It is also the embodiment of the strong alliance of enterprises in which scientific research institutions are stationed. However, Dongfang company had to raise 5million yuan from the private sector at the highest interest of 3 points to make up for the gap of working capital. However, due to insufficient orders and insufficient construction at the initial stage of completion and operation, the net profit of the enterprise can not even cover the loan interest

in order to maintain the existing production, Dongfang company had to continue to raise funds from the private sector at high cost. "After getting the money, many of it is not directly used to maintain production and operation, but to repay the previous loans." The result of robbing Peter to pay Paul is that the hole is getting bigger and bigger. At present, their total private loans are as high as more than 20 million yuan

once all the arrears litigation is adjudicated and executed, the plants and equipment previously built by Dongfang company with its own funds of more than 20million yuan will all change ownership, and the founder of this company will jointly and severally bear another private loan of more than 20million yuan, from a "millionaire" to a "big loser"

but Dongfang company is lucky. Its business relationship and cash flow have not been cut off, and there are many opportunities to turn over in the future. However, many small and medium-sized enterprises are forced into a desperate situation by harsh loan conditions. Other external development environment problems, at best, make people run errands, but financing problems will kill the enterprise

the harsh loan conditions reflect the development status of small and medium-sized enterprises' financing difficulties and inability to modify their expensive assets. On the one hand, small and medium-sized enterprises encounter difficulties at the operational level due to the superposition of external factors and cyclical factors, which will naturally be reflected in the decline of financing capacity; On the other hand, the pro cyclical behavior of financial institutions, the decline in risk appetite, and some financial institutions are reluctant to lend and cut off loans, which will aggravate the financing difficulties of enterprises

how to solve the "high mountain" of difficult and expensive financing for private enterprises? At the executive meeting of the State Council on April 17, in view of the current difficulties and pain points in private enterprises' access to financial services, measures were taken to further reduce the financing costs of small and micro enterprises, ensure that the financing scale of small and micro enterprises increased and the costs decreased, and promote employment expansion and new momentum growth

the meeting required that

1. We should insist on not engaging in "flooding", implement a sound monetary policy, flexibly use monetary policy tools, expand the scale of refinancing, rediscount and other tools, and pay close attention to the establishment of a policy framework for small and medium-sized banks to implement a low deposit reserve ratio. In view of the problem that financing is difficult and expensive, which is mainly concentrated in private and small and micro enterprises, we should use the released incremental funds for private and small and micro enterprise loans. Promote bond financing support tools to ensure that the scale of bond issuance and financing by private enterprises and the scale of special financial bonds issued by financial institutions for small and micro enterprises this year exceed the level of 2018

2. We should promote banks to improve the assessment and incentive mechanism of "daring to lend, willing to lend, and able to lend", and support the independent formulation of inclusive small and micro enterprise credit plans. The five large state-owned commercial banks that have established diplomatic relations between industry and agriculture should take the lead to ensure that the loan balance of small and micro enterprises will increase by more than 30% this year and that the comprehensive financing cost of credit for small and micro enterprises will be reduced by another 1 percentage point on the basis of last year. Guide other financial institutions that cannot work to substantially reduce the financing costs of small and micro enterprises

3. Reduce the financing cost of enterprises through government financing guarantee. The central government will continue to allocate funds and implement the policy of reducing fees and subsidies for financing guarantees for small and micro enterprises. The national financing guarantee fund supports 200billion yuan of guaranteed loans for small and micro enterprises, with more than 100000 households. All localities should achieve the goal that the guarantee rate of small and micro enterprises with a single guarantee amount of less than 5million yuan should not exceed 1% and the direct selling price of manufacturers with a guarantee amount of more than 5million yuan should not exceed 1.5% as soon as possible

4. Banks should be guided to increase the proportion of credit loans and reduce excessive dependence on mortgage guarantees. To clear up and standardize the additional costs of enterprise mortgage registration, asset evaluation, bridge crossing, etc., relevant departments should jointly carry out special inspections on unreasonable and illegal charges in enterprise financing, so as to reduce the burden on enterprises

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